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Environ Toxicol. 2019 Dec;34(12):1340-1353. doi: 10.1002/tox.22835. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Resveratrol protects against cadmium chloride-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity by inhibiting ER stress and GAAD 153 and activating sirtuin 1/AMPK/Akt.

Author information

1
Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract

This study investigated whether the apoptotic effect induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) in rat's hippocampi and neuroprotection afforded by resveratrol (RES) are mediated by modulation of ER stress and involve sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/AMPK/Akt axis. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 24/group) as control, control + RES (300 mg/kg), CdCl2 (5 mg/kg), and CdCl2  + RES. All treatments were conducted orally for 45 days. Also, cultured hippocampal cells were treated with CdCl2 in the presence or absence of RES and with or without preincubation with SIRT1, AMPK, or PI3K inhibitors. CdCl2 impaired retention and spatial memories of rats and reduced levels and activities of SIRT1 and inhibited AMPK/Akt axis in their hippocamapi where SIRT1 was the upstream regulator. It also enahnced hippocampal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of caspase-12 and caspase-3, depleted glutathione (GSH) levels, and activated GRP78, activating transcription factor-6, GAAD 153, X-box binding protein-1 arms of ER stress. On the contrary, RES coadminsitration completley abolished all these events. Interstingly and in control rats, RES not only increased levels of GSH, but also enhenced protein levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and dwonregulated GAAD 153. In both control and CdCl2 -treated rats, pharmacological inhibtion of SIRT1, AMPK, and Akt compleltely abolished all effects afforded by RES. In conclusion, CdCl2 -induced hippocampal apopotis is associated with reduction of SIRT1/AMPK/Akt activity levels, ROS generation, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activities, activation of ER stress, and GAAD 153, whereas RES is able to reverse these effects through activation of SIRT1/AMPK/Akt.

KEYWORDS:

ER stress; GAAD 153; cadmium chloride; hippocampus; resveratrol

PMID:
31433112
DOI:
10.1002/tox.22835
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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