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Eur Radiol Exp. 2019 Aug 21;3(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s41747-019-0113-6.

In vitro qualitative and quantitative CT assessment of iodinated aerosol nasal deposition using a 3D-printed nasal replica.

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KlusLab Research, Witikonerstrasse 15, CH 8032, Zürich, Switzerland.
Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zürich, University of Zürich, 8006, Zurich, Switzerland.
KlusLab Research, Witikonerstrasse 15, CH 8032, Zürich, Switzerland.


Computed tomography can provide high-resolution details on nasal anatomy being potentially useful for the assessment of nasal spray deposition. The purpose of this technical note was to present a method based on CT imaging to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the in vitro spray deposition patterns within the sinonasal cavities of a nasal replica obtained by three-dimensional (3D) printing, using iodinated contrast agent labelled solutions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using a third generation dual-source CT scanner in single energy mode, scans of a nasal replica were acquired following application of iodinated contrast agent labelled aerosols with an iodine concentration of 92.5 mgl/mL. Two software programmes were then utilised (Osirix MD v.9.0, Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland; 3mensio, Pie Medical Imaging, Bilthoven, Netherlands) to generate three-dimensional reconstructions of the scans, thus enabling the rapid detection and visualisation of administered single droplets and their voxel-by-voxel localisation. Using this approach, we achieved recovery rates between 84-98% and 89-109% (depending on the software programme) of the total applied aerosol volume.


Aerosols; Contrast media; Iodine; Nasal sprays; Tomography (x-ray computed)

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