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Mahmoodi AN1, Kim PY2.


StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019-.
2019 Aug 15.

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University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin-Madison


Ketorolac is an FDA-approved medication used in the treatment of moderate to severe acute onset pain.[1] It is in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) drug class. Ketorolac is versatile, as it is available in multiple dose forms: oral, nasal spray, IV, or IM. It is commonly used postoperatively for pain management. Ketorolac, in combination with opioids, results in a significant decrease in opioid requirement and lowers the incidence of adverse effects such as vomiting and decreased gastrointestinal motility.[1] In children, ketorolac is as effective as major opioid analgesics.[2] Thus, it is a great pain management alternative or adjunct for pediatric (off label for acute moderate to severe pain) or adult individuals for whom there is concern regarding opioid dependence. In the emergency department setting, it is successful in treating musculoskeletal pain, migraines, and sickle cell crisis. Lastly, NSAIDs such as ketorolac are effective for pain associated with cancer that has metastasized to bones.[3] 

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