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Small. 2019 Aug 18:e1901560. doi: 10.1002/smll.201901560. [Epub ahead of print]

Multifunctional Nanoengineered Hydrogels Consisting of Black Phosphorus Nanosheets Upregulate Bone Formation.

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Department of Spine Surgery and Institute for Orthopaedic Research, The 2nd Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People's Hospital) of Jinan University, Shenzhen, 518020, China.
Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Postdoctoral Research Station, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
School of Environment Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.
The Shenzhen Public Service Platform on Tumor Precision Medicine and Molecular Diagnosis, Shenzhen, 519020, China.
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 999077, China.
College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.


Tissue-engineered hydrogels have received extensive attention as their mechanical properties, chemical compositions, and biological signals can be dynamically modified for mimicking extracellular matrices (ECM). Herein, the synthesis of novel double network (DN) hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties using combinatorial screening methods is reported. Furthermore, nanoengineered (NE) hydrogels are constructed by addition of ultrathin 2D black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets to the DN hydrogels with multiple functions for mimicking the ECM microenvironment to induce tissue regeneration. Notably, it is found that the BP nanosheets exhibit intrinsic properties for induced CaP crystal particle formation and therefore improve the mineralization ability of NE hydrogels. Finally, in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that the BP nanosheets, mineralized CaP crystal nanoparticles, and excellent mechanical properties provide a favorable ECM microenvironment to mediate greater osteogenic cell differentiation and bone regeneration. Consequently, the combination of bioactive chemical materials and excellent mechanical stimuli of NE hydrogels inspire novel engineering strategies for bone-tissue regeneration.


ECM microenvironment; biomimetic mineralization; black phosphorus nanosheets; bone-tissue engineering; high-strength nanoengineered hydrogels


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