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Oncol Lett. 2019 Aug;18(2):1267-1277. doi: 10.3892/ol.2019.10455. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Association between polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and GSTM1 genes, and smoking, alcohol and upper digestive tract carcinomas in a high-incidence area of northern China.

Author information

1
Anyang Key Laboratory for Esophageal Cancer Research, Anyang Cancer Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455000, P.R. China.
2
The Fourth Radiotherapy Department, Anyang Cancer Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455000, P.R. China.
3
Department of Key Laboratory for Tumor Translational Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan 453000, P.R. China.
4
The First Radiotherapy Department, Anyang Cancer Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455000, P.R. China.
5
The Third Medicine Department, Anyang Cancer Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455000, P.R. China.
6
The Pathology Department, Anyang Cancer Hospital, Anyang, Henan 455000, P.R. China.

Abstract

Metabolic gene variants, smoking, and alcohol consumption are important upper digestive tract cancer (UDTC) risk factors. However, the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions remain unclear. A case-control study in a high incidence area for upper digestive tract cancer was conducted in China. DNA was extracted from buffy coat samples for PCR or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Smoking and alcohol drinking status was determined by questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the associations. After adjusting for confounding factors, smoking increased esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cardia cancer (GCC) and gastric antral carcinoma (GAC) risk by 3.594, 4.658, and 3.999-fold, respectively. Alcohol consumption increased EC, GCC and GAC risk by 1.953, 2.442 and 1.765-fold, respectively. The cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) rs4646903 T>C polymorphism increased GCC risk, the cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) rs2031920 C>T polymorphism increased EC risk, while the GSTM1 null genotype decreased EC risk. An association existed between the following: CYP1A1 rs4646903 and smoking in EC, GCC and GAC; CYP1A1 rs4646903 and alcohol consumption in EC and GCC; CYP2E1 rs2031920 and smoking in EC, GCC and GAC and CYP2E1 rs2031920 and alcohol consumption in EC and GCC. No association was observed between CYP1A1 and CYP2E1. The glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype decreased EC risk (OR=0.510). Smoking/drinking are upper digestive tract cancer risk factors. The CYP1A1 rs4646903 and CYP2E1 rs2031920 polymorphisms were risk factors of GCC or EC, and the GSTM1 null genotype may serve a protective role against EC. The results of the present study indicated that gene-environment interactions increase the risk of UDTC.

KEYWORDS:

alcohol drinking; gene polymorphism; high-incidence area; smoking; upper digestive cancer

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