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Appl Ergon. 2019 Nov;81:102872. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2019.06.003. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

The evaluation of an ambulance rear compartment using patient simulation: Issues of safety and efficiency during the delivery of patient care.

Author information

1
W21C Research and Innovation Centre, Cumming School of Medicine, U. of Calgary, Canada.
2
W21C Research and Innovation Centre, Cumming School of Medicine, U. of Calgary, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Canada; Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada. Electronic address: jkcaird@ucalgary.ca.
3
Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Canada; Emergency Medical Services, Alberta Health Services, Canada.
4
W21C Research and Innovation Centre, Cumming School of Medicine, U. of Calgary, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Canada.
5
Emergency Medical Services, Alberta Health Services, Canada.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of a specific ambulance while providers delivered basic and advanced life support. Forty-eight, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) teams were observed delivering care to a simulated patient during an anaphylaxis scenario in a moving ambulance that contained a complete compliment of medical supplies and equipment. A detailed coding system was developed and applied to the audio and video behavioural data. Patterns of interaction among EMS personnel, the patient, equipment and the ambulance interior during the patient simulation scenario were analyzed. The results revealed a number of issues associated with the patient compartment including: potentially unsafe seated and standing positions; hazardous barriers to movement around the patient; difficulties accessing equipment and supplies; and the adequacy of work surfaces and waste disposal. A number of design recommendations are made to guide provider and patient comfort, efficiency and safety.

KEYWORDS:

Ambulance design; Ambulance patient compartment; Human factors evaluation; Patient simulation; Provider and patient safety

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