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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2019 Sep;66:158-165. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.07.032. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Low prevalence of known pathogenic mutations in dominant PD genes: A Swedish multicenter study.

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Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:
Lund University, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Genetics and Pathology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Office for Medical Services, Region Skåne, Sweden.
Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Sweden; Memory Clinic, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurology, Lund, Sweden.
Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.
Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Clinical Genetics, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.



To determine the frequency of mutations known to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson disease (PD) in a series with more than 10% of Sweden's estimated number of PD patients.


The Swedish Parkinson Disease Genetics Network was formed as a national multicenter consortium of clinical researchers who together have access to DNA from a total of 2,206 PD patients; 85.4% were from population-based studies. Samples were analyzed centrally for known pathogenic mutations in SNCA (duplications/triplications, p.Ala30Pro, p.Ala53Thr) and LRRK2 (p.Asn1437His, p.Arg1441His, p.Tyr1699Cys, p.Gly2019Ser, p.Ile2020Thr). We compared the frequency of these mutations in Swedish patients with published PD series and the gnomAD database.


A family history of PD in first- and/or second-degree relatives was reported by 21.6% of participants. Twelve patients (0.54%) carried LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) mutations, one patient (0.045%) an SNCA duplication. The frequency of LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) carriers was 0.11% in a matched Swedish control cohort and a similar 0.098% in total gnomAD, but there was a marked difference between ethnicities in gnomAD, with 42-fold higher frequency among Ashkenazi Jews than all others combined.


In relative terms, the LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) variant is the most frequent mutation among Swedish or international PD patients, and in gnomAD. SNCA duplications were the second most common of the mutations examined. In absolute terms, however, these known pathogenic variants in dominant PD genes are generally very rare and can only explain a minute fraction of familial aggregation of PD. Additional genetic and environmental mechanisms may explain the frequent co-occurrence of PD in close relatives.

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