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J Sci Med Sport. 2019 Aug 7. pii: S1440-2440(19)30135-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2019.07.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Validity and reliability assessment of 3-D camera-based capture barbell velocity tracking device.

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Nebraska Athletic Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA. Electronic address:
Nebraska Athletic Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.


Velocity-based training (VBT) requires the monitoring of lift velocity plus the prescribed resistance weight. A validated and reliable device is needed to capture the velocity and power of several exercises.


The study objectives were to examine the validity and reliability of the Elite Form Training System® (EFTS) for measures of peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), peak power (PP), and average power (AP).


Validity of the EFTS was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained via the Qualisys Track Manager software (C-motion, version 3.90.21, Gothenburg, Sweden) utilizing 6 motion capture cameras (Oqus 400, 240 Hz, Gothenburg, Sweden).


Six participants performed 6 resistance exercises in 2 sessions: power clean, dead lift, bench press, back squat, front squat, and jump squat.


Simple Pearson correlations indicated the validity of the device (0.982, 0.971, 0.973, and 0.982 for PV, AV, PP, and AP respectively) and ranged from 0.868 to 0.998 for the 6 exercises. The test-retest reliability of the EFTS was shown by lack of significant change in the Pearson correlation (<0.3% for each variable) between the 2 sessions. The multiple count error rate was 2.0% and the missed count error rate was 2.1%.


The validity and reliability of the EFTS were classified as excellent across all variables and exercises with only one exercise showing a slight influence by the velocity of the movement.


Bench press; Power clean; Resistance training; Squat; Strength and conditioning; Velocity-based training

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