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Addict Behav. 2019 Dec;99:106082. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106082. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Cannabis use among women of reproductive age in the United States: 2002-2017.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Electronic address: alshaara@msu.edu.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA. Electronic address: janthony@msu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In this study of cannabis use in large nationally representative samples of United States (US) women aged 12-44 years, we evaluate variation by pregnancy month and by trimester. We also evaluate cannabis dependence, which might explain why some women continue using cannabis during pregnancy.

METHODS:

Large nationally representative samples drawn for the US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health included 12-44-year-old women asked about pregnancy month, cannabis use, and cannabis dependence (n = 381,199). For this research, we produced month-specific estimates across four-time intervals (2002-2005, 2006-2009, 2010-2013, 2014-2017).

RESULTS:

Overall from 2002 to 2017, estimates for non-pregnant women and for pregnant women in Trimester 1 indicate 7%-8% had used cannabis at least once in the 30 days prior to assessment. For pregnancy Month 1, the corresponding estimate is 11%, double Month 3 estimate of 5%. This degree of month-to-month variation is not seen for pregnant women in Trimesters 2 and 3, for whom estimates are 3% and 2%, respectively. Among women using cannabis during pregnancy, an estimated 19% have cannabis dependence, versus an expected value of 13% among non-pregnant women (p < .05).

CONCLUSION:

Evidence of a possibly ameliorative pregnancy-associated reduction of cannabis use prevalence was seen by Month 3 during pregnancy. Cannabis dependence may help account for cannabis use early during pregnancy. Identification and outreach to reproductive age women with cannabis dependence might decrease prenatal cannabis exposure.

KEYWORDS:

Cannabis; Dependence; Marijuana; NSDUH; Pregnancy; Women

PMID:
31421581
PMCID:
PMC6791768
[Available on 2020-12-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106082

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