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BMC Res Notes. 2019 Aug 16;12(1):516. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4557-9.

Multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Salmonella on raw vegetable salads served at hotels and restaurants in Bharatpur, Nepal.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Birendra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bharatpur, Nepal.
2
Department of Microbiology, Birendra Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bharatpur, Nepal. sanadh26@gmail.com.
3
Key Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Drugs, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
4
Department of Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Antimicrobial resistance among the bacteria present in ready-to-eat foods like vegetable salads is an emerging concern today. The current study was undertaken to investigate the presence of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli and Salmonella spp. in raw vegetable salads served at hotels and restaurants in Bharatpur. A total of 216 salad samples were collected from three different grades of hotels and restaurants and examined for the presence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in Microbiology laboratory of Birendra Multiple Campus by conventional microbiological techniques.

RESULTS:

Out of 216 samples, 66 samples (35.2%) showed the presence of Salmonella spp. whereas E. coli was recovered from 29 (13.4%) samples of which 3 samples harbored E. coli O157: H7. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that 9 (13.6%) Salmonella and 4 (13.8%) E. coli isolates were detected as multi-drug resistant. Total ESBL producers reported were 5 (7.57%) Salmonella and 4 (13.8%) E. coli. The study also assessed a significant association between occurrence of E. coli and Salmonella with different grades of hotels and restaurants, personal hygiene and literacy rate of chefs and with the type of cleaning materials used to wash knives and chopping boards (p < 0.05). The findings suggest an immediate need of attention by the concerned authorities to prevent the emergence and transmission of food-borne pathogens and infections antimicrobial resistance among them.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiograms; E. coli O157: H7; ESBL; Hotels and restaurants; Multi-drug resistant; Salads

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