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Endosc Ultrasound. 2019 Aug 9. doi: 10.4103/eus.eus_37_19. [Epub ahead of print]

Combination therapy versus monotherapy for EUS-guided management of gastric varices: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.


Cyanoacrylate (CYA), coil embolization, and/or combination thereof are available EUS-guided therapies for the treatment of†Š gastric varices (GV). The primary aim of this study was to perform a structured systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of EUS-guided interventions for the treatment of GV. Individualized search strategies were developed for PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception through November 2018 in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. This cumulative meta-analysis was performed using calculating pooled proportions. Measured outcomes included technical success, clinical success, adverse events, and rate of rebleeding or reintervention. Comparative subgroup analyses were performed for three treatment cohorts (EUS-guided CYA injection, EUS-guided coil embolization + CYA injection, and EUS-guided coil injection alone). Heterogeneity was assessed with I2 statistics. Eleven studies (n = 536 patients; 62.20% of males) were included. The mean age was 58.21 ± 4.15 years with an average follow-up of 12.93 ± 7.69 months. Overall technical success, clinical success, and adverse events for EUS treatments was 100% ([95% confidence interval [CI] 98-100]; I2 = 30.54%), 97% ([95% CI 92-100]; I2 = 59.99%), and 14% ([95% CI 6-23]; I2 = 82.23%), respectively. On subgroup analysis, EUS-guided CYA + coil embolization resulted in a better technical and clinical success compared to CYA alone (100% vs. 97%; P < 0.001 and 98% vs. 96%; P < 0.001) and coil embolization alone (99% vs. 97%; P < 0.001 and 96% vs. 90%; P < 0.001). CYA + coil embolization also resulted in lower adverse event rates compared to CYA alone (10% vs. 21%; P < 0.001), and comparable rates to coil embolization alone (10% vs. 3%; P = 0.057). EUS-guided treatment overall appears to be an effective and safe modality for GV. Among a variety of EUS-therapies available, EUS combination therapy with coil embolization + CYA injection appears to be a preferred strategy for the treatment of GV over EUS-based monotherapy.


Cyanoacrylate; EUS; gastric varices; portal hypertension; vascular coils

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