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Cell Host Microbe. 2019 Aug 14;26(2):283-295.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2019.07.008.

The Landscape of Genetic Content in the Gut and Oral Human Microbiome.

Author information

1
Section on Pathophysiology and Molecular Pharmacology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Section on Pathophysiology and Molecular Pharmacology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Combinatorics and Optimization, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
3
Section on Pathophysiology and Molecular Pharmacology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
4
Section on Pathophysiology and Molecular Pharmacology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
6
Boston, MA.
7
Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: Chirag_Patel@hms.harvard.edu.
8
Section on Pathophysiology and Molecular Pharmacology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: Aleksandar.Kostic@joslin.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Despite substantial interest in the species diversity of the human microbiome and its role in disease, the scale of its genetic diversity, which is fundamental to deciphering human-microbe interactions, has not been quantified. Here, we conducted a cross-study meta-analysis of metagenomes from two human body niches, the mouth and gut, covering 3,655 samples from 13 studies. We found staggering genetic heterogeneity in the dataset, identifying a total of 45,666,334 non-redundant genes (23,961,508 oral and 22,254,436 gut) at the 95% identity level. Fifty percent of all genes were "singletons," or unique to a single metagenomic sample. Singletons were enriched for different functions (compared with non-singletons) and arose from sub-population-specific microbial strains. Overall, these results provide potential bases for the unexplained heterogeneity observed in microbiome-derived human phenotypes. One the basis of these data, we built a resource, which can be accessed at https://microbial-genes.bio.

KEYWORDS:

de novo assembly; gene catalog; gene diversity; gut microbiome; metagenomics; microbial diversity; oral microbiome

PMID:
31415755
PMCID:
PMC6716383
[Available on 2020-08-14]
DOI:
10.1016/j.chom.2019.07.008

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