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New Phytol. 2019 Aug 14. doi: 10.1111/nph.16118. [Epub ahead of print]

The role of CYP71A12 monooxygenase in pathogen-triggered tryptophan metabolism and Arabidopsis immunity.

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Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12/14, 61-704, Poznań, Poland.
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, 606-8502, Kyoto, Japan.
Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) - Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Campus Montegancedo-UPM, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid), Spain.
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research and Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), Carl-von-Linné-Weg 10, D-50829, Köln, Germany.
Chair of Botany, Department of Plant Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 4, 85354, Freising, Germany.
Microbial Biotechnology, TUM Campus Straubing for Biotechnology and Sustainability, Technical University of Munich, Schulgasse 22, 94315, Straubing, Germany.
Departamento de Biotecnología-Biología Vegetal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.


Effective defense of Arabidopsis against filamentous pathogens requires two mechanisms, both of which involve biosynthesis of tryptophan (Trp)-derived metabolites. Extracellular resistance involves products of PEN2-dependent metabolism of indole glucosinolates (IGs). Restriction of further fungal growth requires PAD3-dependent camalexin and other, as yet uncharacterized, indolics. This study focuses on the function of CYP71A12 monooxygenase in pathogen-triggered Trp-metabolism, including the biosynthesis of indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA). Moreover, to investigate the contribution of CYP71A12 and its products to Arabidopsis immunity, we analyzed infection phenotypes of multiple mutant lines combining pen2 with pad3, cyp71A12, cyp71A13, or cyp82C2. Metabolite profiling of cyp71A12 lines revealed a reduction in ICA accumulation. Additionally, analysis of mutant plants proved that low amounts of ICA can form during an immune response by CYP71B6/AAO1-dependent metabolism of indole acetonitrile, but not via IG hydrolysis. Infection assays with Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Colletotrichum tropicale, two pathogens representing different lifestyles, revealed cyp71A12-, cyp71A13-, and cyp82C2-associated defects associated with Arabidopsis immunity. Our results indicate that CYP71A12, but not CYP71A13, is the major enzyme responsible for the accumulation of ICA in Arabidopsis in response to pathogen ingression. We also show that both enzymes are key players in the resistance of Arabidopsis against selected filamentous pathogens after they invade. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Arabidopsis thaliana ; camalexin; glucosinolates; indole-3-carboxylic acid; plant immunity; tryptophan metabolism


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