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Acta Biotheor. 2019 Aug 13. doi: 10.1007/s10441-019-09357-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Investigating Macrophages Plasticity Following Tumour-Immune Interactions During Oncolytic Therapies.

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Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN, UK.
Hopital Privé de La Miotte, 90002, Belfort, France.


Over the last few years, oncolytic virus therapy has been recognised as a promising approach in cancer treatment, due to the potential of these viruses to induce systemic anti-tumour immunity and selectively killing tumour cells. However, the effectiveness of these viruses depends significantly on their interactions with the host immune responses, both innate (e.g., macrophages, which accumulate in high numbers inside solid tumours) and adaptive (e.g., [Formula: see text] T cells). In this article, we consider a mathematical approach to investigate the possible outcomes of the complex interactions between two extreme types of macrophages (M1 and M2 cells), effector [Formula: see text] T cells and an oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), on the growth/elimination of B16F10 melanoma. We discuss, in terms of VSV, [Formula: see text] and macrophages levels, two different types of immune responses which could ensure tumour control and eventual elimination. We show that both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses, as well as the oncolytic virus, could be very important in delaying tumour relapse and eventually eliminating the tumour. Overall this study supports the use mathematical modelling to increase our understanding of the complex immune interaction following oncolytic virotherapies. However, the complexity of the model combined with a lack of sufficient data for model parametrisation has an impact on the possibility of making quantitative predictions.


M1 macrophages; M2 macrophages; Mathematical model; Oncolytic viruses; T cells


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