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Degener Neurol Neuromuscul Dis. 2019 Jul 16;9:89-102. doi: 10.2147/DNND.S215318. eCollection 2019.

Clinical and research applications of neuromuscular ultrasound in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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Department of Neurology, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia.
St Vincent's Clinical School, School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dysfunction at multiple levels of the neuraxis. It remains a clinical diagnosis without a definitive diagnostic investigation. Electrodiagnostic testing provides supportive information and, along with imaging and biochemical markers, can help exclude mimicking conditions. Neuromuscular ultrasound has a valuable role in the diagnosis and monitoring of ALS and provides complementary information to clinical assessment and electrodiagnostic testing as well as insights into the underlying pathophysiology of this disease. This review highlights the evidence for ultrasound in the evaluation of bulbar, limb and respiratory musculature and peripheral nerves in ALS. Further research in this evolving area is required.


amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; biomarker; clinical neurophysiology; clinical trials; ultrasound

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