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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Aug 10;16(16). pii: E2855. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16162855.

Prevalence and Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency among African Immigrants Living in Australia.

Author information

1
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
2
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 2600, Australia.
3
Centre for Opthalmology and Visual Science, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.
4
School of Public Health, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia. lucinda.black@curtin.edu.au.

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <50 nmol/L) is a public health issue in Australia and internationally. Those with darker skin require a greater dose of ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight than those with paler skin to synthesise adequate amounts of vitamin D. Using data from the 2011-2013 Australian Health Survey, we investigated the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in African immigrants aged ≥18 years living in Australia (n = 236). Serum 25(OH)D was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method that is certified to international reference measurement procedures. Poisson regression was used to investigate independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency. A total of 36% of adults were vitamin D deficient (35% of men, 37% of women). The prevalence ratio (PR) of vitamin D deficiency decreased by 2% per year of age (PR 0.98; 95% CI (0.97, 0.99); p = 0.004) and was 1.6 times higher in those with low/sedentary, compared to moderate/high, physical activity levels (PR 1.64; 95% CI (1.12, 2.39); p = 0.011). The greatest risk was for those assessed during winter/spring compared with summer/autumn (PR 1.89; 95% CI (1.33, 2.64); p < 0.001). Culturally appropriate messaging on safe sun exposure and dietary vitamin D is warranted in order to promote vitamin D sufficiency in African immigrants living in Australia.

KEYWORDS:

25-hydroxyvitamin D; African; Australian Health Survey; immigrant; vitamin D deficiency

PMID:
31405087
PMCID:
PMC6720761
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph16162855
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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