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Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019 Aug 9;226:108590. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.108590. [Epub ahead of print]

Acute exposure to the water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) affects oxygen consumption, nitrogenous-waste and Mg excretion, and activates anaerobic metabolism in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

Author information

1
Integrated Group for Aquaculture and Environmental Studies, Dept. of Animal Science, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, P.R. 83035-050, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR ZIP 80035-050, Brazil; Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ZIP V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: giorgi.dalpont@ufpr.br.
2
Integrated Group for Aquaculture and Environmental Studies, Dept. of Animal Science, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, P.R. 83035-050, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR ZIP 80035-050, Brazil; Institute of Technology for Development - Lactec, Curitiba, PR ZIP 81531-980, Brazil. Electronic address: luciana.bastos@lactec.org.br.
3
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ZIP V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: giacomin@zoology.ubc.ca.
4
Grupo de Química Ambiental (GQA), Dept. of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná, PO Box 19032, Curitiba, PR ZIP 81531-970, Brazil.
5
Grupo de Química Ambiental (GQA), Dept. of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná, PO Box 19032, Curitiba, PR ZIP 81531-970, Brazil. Electronic address: mtgrassi@quimica.ufpr.br.
6
Integrated Group for Aquaculture and Environmental Studies, Dept. of Animal Science, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, P.R. 83035-050, Brazil. Electronic address: ostrensky@ufpr.br.
7
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ZIP V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address: woodcm@zoology.ubc.ca.

Abstract

Contamination of aquatic environments by petroleum and its products (e.g. gasoline) is a hazard for aquatic organisms as a result of the potential toxicity of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Our goal was to evaluate the acute effects of the water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) on nitrogen excretion, osmoregulation, and metabolism of goldfish Carassius auratus. We first chemically characterized the WSFG and then tested its effects on these physiological aspects of C. auratus, in several different exposure scenarios (0, 0.25, 5, 10 and 25% of WSFG). The WSFG contained high concentrations BTEX (toluene 70% and benzene 17%) relative to PAH (<1%), and low levels of several metals (Al, Fe, Zn, Sr). Routine O2 uptake rate (MO2) of goldfish was inhibited by exposure to 5% WSFG, and during post-exposure recovery, MO2 increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Ammonia excretion was not affected by exposure to WSFG, but urea-N excretion increased progressively with the WSFG concentration. The same pattern of dose/response was observed for net Mg2+ loss rates and steadily increasing plasma lactate concentrations. Loss rates of Na+, Ca2+, K+ and Cl-, and plasma concentrations of Mg2+ and urea-N were not significantly altered. We propose that acute exposure to WSFG inhibits aerobic metabolism and activates anaerobic metabolism, breaking down ATP such that bound Mg2+ is liberated and the purine ring component is metabolized to urea-N, both of which are subsequently excreted.

KEYWORDS:

BTEX; Environmental pollution; Ionic flux rates; Lactate; Mg(2+) excretion; Oxygen uptake; PAH; Urea-N

PMID:
31404698
DOI:
10.1016/j.cbpc.2019.108590

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