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Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 19;694:133486. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.292. [Epub ahead of print]

TDCIPP exposure affects Artemia franciscana growth and osmoregulation.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, United States.
2
Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, United States.
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, United States.
4
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, United States. Electronic address: clarive@ucsc.edu.

Abstract

Environmental monitoring has demonstrated widespread occurrence of the flame-retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), raising concerns about the impact on aquatic life. Using 1H NMR and GC-MS metabolomics and 20-day body length experiments, we have determined that exposure to TDCIPP affects Artemia franciscana. The LC50 for a 48 h TDCIPP exposure was determined to be 37.1 ± 1.3 μM. Acute exposure (48 h) to 20.0 μM did not affect A. franciscana body length but did elicit a metabolic change. Chronic exposure to 0.50 μM TDCIPP caused decreased body length in A. franciscana exposed for 20 days and elicited a metabolic response. Principal component analysis revealed variance between acute and chronic exposure along PC1 (36.4%) and between control and TDCIPP along PC2 (17.4%). One-way ANOVA indicated that 19 metabolites were significantly affected by TDCIPP exposure; namely metabolites of the osmolyte class, including betaine, phosphocholine, gadusol, taurine, glycerol and trehalose - metabolites that are essential osmoprotectants in extremophile species. Other pathways that may be perturbed by TDCIPP exposure include one carbon, glycine, serine, threonine, and glycerophospholipid metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

(1)H NMR; Artemia franciscana; GC–MS; Metabolomics; Osmoregulation; Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate

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