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Can J Diabetes. 2019 May 14. pii: S1499-2671(19)30085-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2019.05.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of Cannabis Use in Youth and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: The Highs, the Lows, the Don't Knows.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
2
Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address: kaberi.dasgupta@mcgill.ca.

Abstract

Our objective was to address the request by our Diabetes Canada/Canadian Institutes of Health Research-funded Virtual Patient Network (VPN) of youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes for information on the impact of cannabis use on type 1 diabetes. To respond to this patient-initiated request, we conducted a literature search in PubMed, with search terms relevant to the following: cannabis use in youth with type 1 diabetes, effects of cannabis use on glycemic control and diabetic emergencies and immune-modulating properties of cannabis. These were synthesized in a narrative review. The number of studies is limited and is based largely on self-report and cross-sectional assessment. The existing literature indicates that 10% to 30% of youth and young adults with type 1 diabetes report ever using cannabis, similarly to the general population. Use appears to be associated with higher glycated hemoglobin and greater diabetic ketoacidosis incidence. There is some evidence of poorer self-management during episodes of use. Cannabis has been shown to be protective against type 1 diabetes in animal models, but such findings have yet to be replicated in humans. Existing cross-sectional studies suggest adverse effects of cannabis use on glycemic control and self-management. However, it is not clear if the associations identified are due to use itself or other patient or contextual factors. Nonetheless, given high use rates, health-care providers should query use, discuss its potential impact on diabetes management and outcomes, and codevelop an action plan.

KEYWORDS:

acidocétose diabétique; cannabis; concentrations de l'hémoglobine glyquée; diabetic ketoacidosis; diabète de type 1; drogues; drugs; glycated hemoglobin levels; jeunes; type 1 diabetes; youth

PMID:
31401053
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcjd.2019.05.001

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