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Clin Nutr. 2019 Jul 30. pii: S0261-5614(19)30294-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.07.012. [Epub ahead of print]

Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF), a novel estimator of intra-abdominal fat content and cardio-metabolic health.

Author information

1
Unidad de Investigación de Enfermedades Metabólicas, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico; MD/PhD (PECEM) Program, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
2
Unidad de Investigación de Enfermedades Metabólicas, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico.
3
Unidad de Investigación de Enfermedades Metabólicas, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico.
4
Directorate of Research, Hospital General de Mexico "Dr Eduardo Liceaga", Mexico; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Department of Radiology, Russia.
5
Unidad de Investigación de Enfermedades Metabólicas, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico; Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Mexico.
6
Unidad de Investigación de Enfermedades Metabólicas, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico; Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Mexico. Electronic address: caguilarsalinas@yahoo.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Intra-abdominal and visceral fat (VAT) are risk factors for the development of cardio-metabolic comorbidities; however its clinical assessment is limited by technology and required expertise for its assessment. We aimed to develop a novel score (METS-VF) to estimate VAT by combining the non-insulin-based METS-IR index, waist-height ratio (WHtr), age and sex.

METHODS:

We developed METS-VF in a sample of 366 individuals with Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METS-VF was modeled using non-linear regression and validated in two replication cohorts with DXA (n = 184, with n = 118 who also had MRI) and bio-electrical impedance (n = 991). We also assessed METS-VF to predict incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and arterial hypertension independent of body-mass index (BMI) in our Metabolic Syndrome Cohort (n = 6144).

RESULTS:

We defined METS-VF as: 4.466 + 0.011*(Ln(METS-IR))3 + 3.239*(Ln(WHtr))3 + 0.319*(Sex) + 0.594*(Ln(Age)). METS-VF showed better performance compared to other VAT surrogates using either DXA (AUC 0.896 95% CI 0.847-0.945) or MRI (AUC 0.842 95% CI 0.771-0.913) as gold standards. We identified a METS-VF cut-off point >7.18 in healthy patients which has 100% sensitivity (95% CI 76.8-100) and 87.2% specificity (95% CI 79.1-93.0) to identify increased VAT (>100 cm2). METS-VF also had adequate performance in subjects with metabolically-healthy obesity. Finally, in our metabolic syndrome cohort, subjects in the upper quintiles of METS-VF (>7.2) had 3.8 and 2.0-fold higher risk of incident T2D and hypertension, respectively (p < 0.001). This effect was independent of BMI for both outcomes.

CONCLUSION:

METS-VF is a novel surrogate to estimate VAT, which has better performance compared to other surrogate VAT indexes and is predictive of incident T2D and hypertension. METS-VF could be a useful tool to assess cardio-metabolic risk in primary care practice and research settings.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiometabolic risk; DXA; Intra-abdominal fat; METS-VF; MRI; Visceral adiposity

PMID:
31400997
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2019.07.012

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