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Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2019 Sep;159:68-79. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.05.018. Epub 2019 May 27.

Age- and diet-specific effects of chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos on hormones, inflammation and gut microbiota in rats.

Author information

1
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.
2
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address: bingfang@cau.edu.cn.
3
School of Food Science and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China.
4
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, Co-constructed by Ministry of Education and Beijing Government, Beijing Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.

Abstract

Chlorpyrifos is a pesticide frequently detected in food and has been reported to disturb endocrine and gut health, which was regulated by gut microbiota and enteroendocrine cells. In this study, newly weaned (3 week) and adult (8 week) male rats fed a normal- or high- fat diet were chronically exposed to 0.3 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day. The effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on serum hormone levels, proinflammatory cytokines and gut microbiota were evaluated. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos significantly decreased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicule stimulating hormone and testosterone, which was found only in the normal-fat diet. The counteracted effect of high-fat diet was also found in gut hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. Significantly higher concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), ghrelin, gastric inhibitory poly-peptide, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α were found in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos beginning at newly weaned, whereas only the PYY, ghrelin and IL-6 concentrations increased significantly in rats exposed in adulthood. Furthermore, a decrease in epinephrine induced by chlorpyrifos exposure was found in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos beginning at newly weaned, regardless of their diet. Chlorpyrifos-induced disturbances in the microbiome community structure were more apparent in rats fed a high-fat diet and exposed beginning at newly weaned. The affected bacteria included short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (Romboutsia, Turicibacter, Clostridium sensu stricto 1, norank_f_Coriobacteriaceae, Faecalibaculum, Parasutterella and norank_f__Erysipelotrichaceae), testosterone-related genus (Turicibacter, Brevibacterium), pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus), and inflammation-related bacteria (unclassified_f__Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-009, Parasutterella, Oscillibacter), which regulated the endocrine system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as the immune response and gut barrier. Early exposure accelerated the endocrine-disturbing effect and immune responses of chlorpyrifos, although these effects can be eased or recovered by a high-fat diet. This study helped clarify the relationship between disrupted endocrine function and gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by food contaminants such as pesticides.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA gene sequencing; Gut endocrine; Gut-brain axis; Hormone; Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; Inflammation

PMID:
31400786
DOI:
10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.05.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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