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Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2019 Aug 9. doi: 10.2174/1574891X14666190809115503. [Epub ahead of print]

Conventional formulations, Challenges and Nanomedicines in Infective and Non-Infective Skin Diseases Therapy.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Shalom Institute of Health and Allied Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHUATS), Allahabad. India.
Nanomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi. India.
Le Studium® Loire Valley Institute for Advanced Studies, Centre-Val de Loire region, Orleans. France.


Oral based formulations for treatment of topical infectious and non-infectious disorders causes numerous adverse reactions including of hepatic toxicity, higher metabolism, poor absorption and serious skin events such as drug - drug interactions resulted from metabolism through the cytochrome P450 system [1-3]. Other prefer routes is topical route, in which drug molecules deliver to the SC or epidermis and retained there for an optimum time to exert it therapeutic effect [3, 4-5]. The skin is an ideal site for drug delivery in treatment of topical infective and non-infective skin disease. But its barrier nature of the skin, diseased condition, physiochemical drug properties are major hurdle for drug delivery [6]. Conventional topical formulations such as creams and ointments have failed to gain achieve controlled drug release and drug targeting for the treatment of topical disorders. For effective anti-infective drug therapies, it must be administering and deliver the required quantity of drug into or through the skin to be fix into the epidermis/dermis via sustained release of drug [7]. But skin retention of the drug molecules is a challenging task to achieve due to restricted permeability through the skin. In this regard, the application of nanotechnology to the medicine entitled as nanomedicine has very bright features in the biomedical field [2-3]. Nanomedicines proved good results in the treatment of topical infectious and noninfectious disorders [8]. Nanomedicines overcomes the challenges with the conventional formulations, which based on the development and fabrication of nanostructures [9]. To date, there are various nanoparticulate system have been investigated as effective drug delivery systems, it includes lipidic micro/nano-emulsion system, lipidic vesicular, metallic nanoparticles, lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle systems, etc [10]. Among these, the implementation of silver nanoparticles gained wider attention as topical nanocarriers and promising model in the design of effective therapeutics against many pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, silver nanomedicine possesses several advantages including the targeted drug delivery, minimizes the solubility or stability issues of the drug, low dose and minimizes drug induced side effects [10].


Ethosomes; Liposomes; Nanomedicines; Permeation enhancer; Skin Diseases

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