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Cell. 2019 Aug 8;178(4):933-948.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.019.

Opposing Functions of Interferon Coordinate Adaptive and Innate Immune Responses to Cancer Immune Checkpoint Blockade.

Author information

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
3
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
4
Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
5
Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
6
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
7
Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
8
Division of Biostatistics, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
9
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA.
10
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Ludwig Collaborative Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA.
11
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
12
Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address: andyminn@upenn.edu.

Abstract

Interferon-gamma (IFNG) augments immune function yet promotes T cell exhaustion through PDL1. How these opposing effects are integrated to impact immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is unclear. We show that while inhibiting tumor IFNG signaling decreases interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in cancer cells, it increases ISGs in immune cells by enhancing IFNG produced by exhausted T cells (TEX). In tumors with favorable antigenicity, these TEX mediate rejection. In tumors with neoantigen or MHC-I loss, TEX instead utilize IFNG to drive maturation of innate immune cells, including a PD1+TRAIL+ ILC1 population. By disabling an inhibitory circuit impacting PD1 and TRAIL, blocking tumor IFNG signaling promotes innate immune killing. Thus, interferon signaling in cancer cells and immune cells oppose each other to establish a regulatory relationship that limits both adaptive and innate immune killing. In melanoma and lung cancer patients, perturbation of this relationship is associated with ICB response independent of tumor mutational burden.

KEYWORDS:

CTLA4; ISGs; NK cells; PDL1; T cell exhaustion; immune checkpoint blockade; immunotherapy resistance; innate lymphoid cells; interferon

PMID:
31398344
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.019

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