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Indian J Dent Res. 2019 May-Jun;30(3):420-423. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_655_17.

Evaluation of debris and smear layer removal with XP-endo finisher: A scanning electron microscopic study.

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Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.



The presence of smear layer and debris can prevent the irrigant and sealer from penetrating the dentinal tubules thereby compromising the seal of the root canal filling.


This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of XP-endo Finisher with ProTaper Next and HyFlex in smear layer and debris removal.

Materials and Methods:

: Thirty-two extracted mandibular premolar teeth were selected and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The roots were then randomly divided into 4 groups. In group 1 and 2, canals were instrumented with X2 ProTaper Next (25 0.06 taper). In group 3 and 4, canals were instrumented with HyFlex system (25 0.06 taper). The canals in group 2 and 4 were further finished with XP-endo Finisher. Irrigation was carried out using 3% sodium hypochlorite during instrumentation, and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used as the final rinse. The roots were then split longitudinally. The canal wall was observed under the scanning electron microscope in coronal, middle, and apical thirds at a magnification of ×400 and ×1000 for evaluation of debris and smear layer, respectively. Photomicrographs were taken, and qualitative assessment for debris and smear layer removal was done.

Statistical Analysis Used:

The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test.


Lower debris and smear layer scores were seen in canal thirds instrumented with ProTaper Next and XP-endo Finisher (P < 0.01).


The use of XP-endo Finisher as an adjuvant during shaping and cleaning produced cleaner root canal walls.


Cleaning efficacy; ProTaper Next; XP-endo Finisher; smear layer removal

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