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Neural Regen Res. 2019 Dec;14(12):2043-2053. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.262568.

The neuro-glial coagulonome: the thrombin receptor and coagulation pathways as major players in neurological diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology and Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Abstract

The neuro-glial interface extends far beyond mechanical support alone and includes interactions throu-gh coagulation cascade proteins. Here, we systematically review the evidence indicating that synaptic and node of Ranvier glia cell components modulate synaptic transmission and axonal conduction by a coagulation cascade protein system, leading us to propose the concept of the neuro-glial coagulonome. In the peripheral nervous system, the main thrombin receptor protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is located on the Schwann microvilli at the node of Ranvier and at the neuromuscular junction. PAR1 activation effects can be both neuroprotective or harmful, depending on thrombin activity levels. Low physiological levels of thrombin induce neuroprotective effects in the Schwann cells which are mediated by the endothelial protein C receptor. High levels of thrombin induce conduction deficits, as found in experimental autoimmune neuritis, the animal model for Guillaine-Barre syndrome. In the central nervous system, PAR1 is located on the peri-synaptic astrocyte end-feet. Its activation by high thrombin levels is involved in the pathology of primary inflammatory brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, as well as in other central nervous system insults, including trauma, neoplasms, epilepsy and vascular injury. Following activation of PAR1 by high thrombin levels the seizure threshold is lowered. On the other hand, PAR1 activation by lower levels of thrombin in the central nervous system protects against a future ischemic insult. This review presents the known structure and function of the neuro-glial coagulonome, focusing on coagulation, thrombin and PAR1 in a pathway which may be either physiological (neuroprotective) or detrimental in peripheral nervous system and central nervous system diseases. Understanding the neuro-glial coagulonome may open opportunities for novel pharmacological interventions in neurological diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Guillaine-Barre syndrome; epilepsy; glia; glioblastoma; node of Ranvier; protease activated receptor 1; protease nexin 1; synapse; thrombin

PMID:
31397331
DOI:
10.4103/1673-5374.262568
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