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Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Aug 9:1-17. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2019.1625222. [Epub ahead of print]

Nutrient and genetic biomarkers of nutraceutical treatment response in mood and psychotic disorders: a systematic review.

Author information

1
a MaSc Medicine at University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) , Utrecht , the Netherlands.
2
b Professorial Unit, The Melbourne Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne , Melbourne , Australia.
3
c NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University , Westmead , Australia.
4
d Division of Psychology and Mental Health, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.

Abstract

Objective: Nutrient and genetic biomarkers in nutraceutical trials may allow for the personalisation of nutraceutical treatment and assist in predicting treatment response. We aimed to synthesise the findings of trials which have included these biomarkers to determine which may be most useful for predicting nutraceutical response in mood and psychotic disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted assessing available literature concerning nutraceutical clinical trials in mood and psychotic disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) with baseline and endpoint blood nutrient markers or genetic data available. Results: We identified 35 eligible studies (total n = 3836 participants) examining baseline and endpoint nutrient biomarkers and/or genetic polymorphisms. The key result, as reported in 10 out of 11 omega-3 studies, was a strong association between polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations (mostly EPA and DHA) and psychiatric outcomes, although the exact nature of the association varied between studies and diagnoses. There was no consistent evidence for levels of other nutrients (including Vitamin D, SAM/SAH ratios, carnitine, folate and vitamin B12) relating to treatment response. The evidence for associations between one-carbon cycle genotypes (e.g. MTHFR C677 T, MTR and FOLH1) and treatment response was also inconsistent. Discussion: The available data tentatively supports omega-3 indices as biomarkers of response to omega-3 treatments in mood disorders. Further research with larger samples examining combinations of polymorphisms is required to determine if any genetic factors influence nutraceutical response in mood and psychotic disorders.

KEYWORDS:

Psychiatry; biomarker; depression; diet; folate; omega 3; schizophrenia

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