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J Neuroendocrinol. 2019 Aug 9. doi: 10.1111/jne.12777. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk factors of neurovascular aging in women.

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Departments of Surgery and Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
Department of Physiology and Biomedical engineering, Division of Nephrology and Hematology Research, Departments of Internal Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research and Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.


Biological sex and changes in sex hormones throughout life influence all aspects of health and disease. In women, changes in sex hormonal status reflect ovarian function, pregnancy, and use of exogenous hormonal treatments. Longitudinal data from defined cohorts of women will help to identify mechanisms by which the hormonal milieu contributes to cerebrovascular aging, brain structure, and ultimately cognition. This review summarizes the phenotypes of three cohorts of women identified through the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Clinic Specialized Center of Research Excellence (SCORE) on Sex Differences: 1) menopausal women with histories of normotensive or hypertensive pregnancies, 2) women who had bilateral oophorectomy ≤ 45 years of age, and 3) women who experienced natural menopause and used menopausal hormone treatments for four years. Data from these cohorts will influence the design of follow-up studies of how sex hormonal status affects neurovascular aging in women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Aortic blood pressure; brain volume; cognition; estradiol; menopause; pregnancy; white matter hyperintensities


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