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Pediatr Nephrol. 2019 Aug 8. doi: 10.1007/s00467-019-04288-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Blood pressure in children with chronic kidney disease: lessons learned from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Cohort Study.

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Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Medicine, 699 Riley Hospital Drive, R 230, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
Division of Nephrology, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common among children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). However, the early accrual of CVD risk factors in children with CKD has not been well studied. The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort study of children with mild-to-moderate CKD at study entry counts among its primary aims investigation of the drivers of CVD risk in this population. As the most prevalent CVD risk factor in children with CKD, blood pressure (BP) has been a major focus of investigation for the CKiD Study Group. Over the first 15 years of the study, landmark publications have better defined the prevalence of hypertension, the frequency with which it is under-recognized and thus undertreated, and the consequences of elevated BP in this cohort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contributions made by the CKiD Study in advancing knowledge of BP in this high-risk population, and to highlight areas in need of further study.


CKiD; Cardiovascular disease; Children; Chronic kidney disease; Hypertension; Progression; Risk factors


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