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Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Jul 14;2019:9372182. doi: 10.1155/2019/9372182. eCollection 2019.

Activators and Inhibitors of NRF2: A Review of Their Potential for Clinical Development.

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Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" UAM-CSIC, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPaz) and Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), ISCIII, Madrid, Spain.
Victor Babes National Institute of Pathology, Bucharest, Romania.


The transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) triggers the first line of homeostatic responses against a plethora of environmental or endogenous deviations in redox metabolism, proteostasis, inflammation, etc. Therefore, pharmacological activation of NRF2 is a promising therapeutic approach for several chronic diseases that are underlined by oxidative stress and inflammation, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. A particular case is cancer, where NRF2 confers a survival advantage to constituted tumors, and therefore, NRF2 inhibition is desired. This review describes the electrophilic and nonelectrophilic NRF2 activators with clinical projection in various chronic diseases. We also analyze the status of NRF2 inhibitors, which at this time provide proof of concept for blocking NRF2 activity in cancer therapy.

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The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

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