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Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2019 Aug 8:1-10. doi: 10.1159/000501518. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic Allergy in Children: More than Just a Label.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
2
Division of Dermatology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
3
Division of Allergy Clinical Immunology and Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
4
Division of Allergy Clinical Immunology and Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada, moshebenshoshan@gmail.com.

Abstract

Within the broad category of adverse drug reactions in children, there has been a recent focus specifically on the evaluation of children with antibiotic allergy, in particular, beta-lactam allergy. The potential consequences of being labeled beta-lactam allergy are increasingly recognized. Appropriate evaluation of children with suspected reactions to antibiotics is essential as it is increasingly being recognized that the label of "penicillin allergy" is associated with adverse health and economic outcomes. This review will focus on the 3 main classes of antibiotics reported to cause allergic reactions in children: beta lactams (penicillin derivatives and cephalosporins), macrolides, and sulfonamides. This article is a narrative review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of different types of antibiotic allergies in children. Our review reveals that antibiotic allergy is often overreported and not appropriately diagnosed in the pediatric age groups. There is a recent shift in the diagnostic paradigm from the use of skin tests and if negative challenges to the use of challenge only in the pediatric age group. Larger studies to establish the usefulness and safety of this new approach as well as updated guidelines are needed.

KEYWORDS:

Antibiotic allergy; Drug allergy; Drug challenge; Pediatrics; Skin test

PMID:
31394524
DOI:
10.1159/000501518
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