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J Oral Rehabil. 2019 Aug 8. doi: 10.1111/joor.12870. [Epub ahead of print]

Tactile trigeminal region acuity in temporomandibular disorders: A reliability and cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
2
Motion in Brains Research Group, Institute of Neuroscience and Sciences of the Movement (INCIMOV), Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
3
Instituto de Neurociencia y Dolor Craneofacial (INDCRAN), Madrid, Spain.
4
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid, Spain.
5
Department of Physiotherapy, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, CEU Universities, Valencia, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Two-point discrimination (2-PD) is a valuable test for measuring tactile acuity that provides relevant information about cortical reorganisation and somatosensory function.

OBJECTIVES:

The main objectives of the present study were to assess intra- and interexaminer reliability of the 2-PD test in the trigeminal region in asymptomatic individuals and only intra-examiner reliability in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The secondary objective was to observe the correlations of the 2-PD test with regard to pain intensity and psychological and disability variables.

METHODS:

Intra- and interexaminer reliability of 2-PD in the trigeminal region was assessed in 40 asymptomatic individuals and 54 patients with TMD. Each clinician received training in the assessment of 2-PD using an esthesiometer and following a standardised protocol for the three branches of trigeminal nerve.

RESULTS:

In the asymptomatic participants, interexaminer (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC .64-.88) and test-retest (ICC .70-.87) values were obtained. Given similar test-retest values were shown in the group of patients with TMD (ICC .72-.86), the reliability were considered good-moderate. Statistically significant differences (P < .001) were obtained between the asymptomatic participants and the patients with TMD regarding the mean values from trials of the three trigeminal branch measurements, with a large effect size.

CONCLUSION:

Reliability of the 2-PD test was considered good-moderate. Patients with TMD showed greater distances in the 2-PD test, suggesting that tactile acuity in the trigeminal region is impaired in patients with TMD. Assessment of tactile acuity with 2-PD test in patients with TMD should be considered clinically.

KEYWORDS:

reliability; somatosensory function; tactile acuity; temporomandibular disorders; trigeminal nerve; two-point discrimination

PMID:
31394008
DOI:
10.1111/joor.12870

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