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Regen Med. 2019 Jul;14(7):693-702. doi: 10.2217/rme-2018-0044. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Stem and progenitor cell microenvironment for bone regeneration and repair.

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Department of Cell Biology & Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.
Molecular Matrix, Inc., West Sacramento, CA, USA.
Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.


Stem cells reside in their native microenvironment, which provides dynamic physical and chemical cues essential to their survival, proliferation and function. A typical cell-based therapeutic approach requires the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to depart their native microenvironment, transplant to in-vivo environment, differentiate toward multiple lineages and participate in bone formation. The long-term survival, function and fate of MSC are dependent on the microenvironment in which they are transplanted. Transplantation of morselized autologous bone, which contains both stem cells and their native microenvironment, results in a good clinical outcome. However, implantation of bone graft substitutes does not provide the complete and dynamic microenvironment for MSC. Current bone graft therapeutics may need to be improved further to provide an optimal engineered MSC microenvironment.


bone graft substitutes; hematopoietic stem cells; mesenchymal stem cells; microenvironment; osteogenesis; spinal fusion; stem and progenitor cells; stem cell niche


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