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Pediatr Obes. 2019 Aug 6:e12569. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12569. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of breastfeeding and early exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages with obesity prevalence in offspring born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA.
Department of Research and Evaluation, Public Health Foundation Enterprises Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Program, Irwindale, California, USA.



The relationship of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on obesity prevalence in children has rarely been evaluated.


This study examined the association of GDM status, EBF, and SSB with obesity prevalence in children (1-5 y).


Data are from the 2014 Los Angeles County WIC Survey, which included 3707 mothers and their children (1-5 y).


Compared with GDM offspring who were not EBF, GDM offspring who were EBF had lower odds of obesity, as did non-GDM offspring who were and were not EBF. Compared with GDM offspring with high-concurrent SSB intake (>3 servings/d) and no EBF, GDM offspring with high SSB intake and EBF did not have lower odds of obesity, whereas those with GDM, low SSB (≤1 serving/d), and EBF had lower odds of obesity. Using non-GDM, EBF, and low SSB as referent, non-GDM offspring who were not EBF, with either high or low SSB, had approximately a fourfold increase in odds of obesity.


In GDM offspring, EBF is only associated with lower obesity levels if later SSB intake is also low, whereas EBF is protective against obesity in non-GDM offspring regardless of high or low later SSBs intake.


exclusive breastfeeding; gestational diabetes mellitus; obesity; sugar-sweetened beverages


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