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J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Aug 20;8(16):e012865. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.012865. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Plant-Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All-Cause Mortality in a General Population of Middle-Aged Adults.

Author information

1
Center for Human Nutrition Department of International Health Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD.
2
Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research Baltimore MD.
3
Department of Epidemiology Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD.
4
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health University of Minnesota School of Public Health Minneapolis MN.

Abstract

Background Previous studies have documented the cardiometabolic health benefits of plant-based diets; however, these studies were conducted in selected study populations that had narrow generalizability. Methods and Results We used data from a community-based cohort of middle-aged adults (n=12 168) in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who were followed up from 1987 through 2016. Participants' diet was classified using 4 diet indexes. In the overall plant-based diet index and provegetarian diet index, higher intakes of all or selected plant foods received higher scores; in the healthy plant-based diet index, higher intakes of only the healthy plant foods received higher scores; in the less healthy plant-based diet index, higher intakes of only the less healthy plant foods received higher scores. In all indexes, higher intakes of animal foods received lower scores. Results from Cox proportional hazards models showed that participants in the highest versus lowest quintile for adherence to overall plant-based diet index or provegetarian diet had a 16%, 31% to 32%, and 18% to 25% lower risk of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality, respectively, after adjusting for important confounders (all P<0.05 for trend). Higher adherence to a healthy plant-based diet index was associated with a 19% and 11% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively, but not incident cardiovascular disease (P<0.05 for trend). No associations were observed between the less healthy plant-based diet index and the outcomes. Conclusions Diets higher in plant foods and lower in animal foods were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a general population.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular disease; diet; morbidity/mortality; vegetation

PMID:
31387433
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.119.012865
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