Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Neuroimage. 2019 Aug 3;202:116073. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116073. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic and environmental influences on functional connectivity within and between canonical cortical resting-state networks throughout adolescent development in boys and girls.

Author information

1
University Medical Center Utrecht, UMC Brain Center, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands. Electronic address: j.teeuw@umcutrecht.nl.
2
University Medical Center Utrecht, UMC Brain Center, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands.
3
Radboud Medical Center, Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Nijmegen, Netherlands; University Medical Center Utrecht, UMC Brain Center, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands.
4
Leiden University, Institute of Psychology, Leiden, Netherlands; University Medical Center Utrecht, UMC Brain Center, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands.
5
Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT, USA; University Medical Center Utrecht, UMC Brain Center, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Netherlands.
6
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Biological Psychology, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Abstract

The human brain is active during rest and hierarchically organized into intrinsic functional networks. These functional networks are largely established early in development, with reports of a shift from a local to more distributed organization during childhood and adolescence. It remains unknown to what extent genetic and environmental influences on functional connectivity change throughout adolescent development. We measured functional connectivity within and between eight cortical networks in a longitudinal resting-state fMRI study of adolescent twins and their older siblings on two occasions (mean ages 13 and 18 years). We modelled the reliability for these inherently noisy and head-motion sensitive measurements by analyzing data from split-half sessions. Functional connectivity between resting-state networks decreased with age whereas functional connectivity within resting-state networks generally increased with age, independent of general cognitive functioning. Sex effects were sparse, with stronger functional connectivity in the default mode network for girls compared to boys, and stronger functional connectivity in the salience network for boys compared to girls. Heritability explained up to 53% of the variation in functional connectivity within and between resting-state networks, and common environment explained up to 33%. Genetic influences on functional connectivity remained stable during adolescent development. In conclusion, longitudinal age-related changes in functional connectivity within and between cortical resting-state networks are subtle but wide-spread throughout adolescence. Genes play a considerable role in explaining individual variation in functional connectivity with mostly stable influences throughout adolescence.

KEYWORDS:

Age effects; Heritability; Longitudinal; Sex effects; Twins

Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center