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J Clin Sleep Med. 2019 Jul 15;15(7):1051-1061. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.7892.

Sleep Validity of a Non-Contact Bedside Movement and Respiration-Sensing Device.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
2
Department of Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania.
3
Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
4
ResMed Sensor Technologies Ltd., Dublin, Ireland.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

To assess the sleep detection and staging validity of a non-contact, commercially available bedside bio-motion sensing device (S+, ResMed) and evaluate the impact of algorithm updates.

METHODS:

Polysomnography data from 27 healthy adult participants was compared epoch-by-epoch to synchronized data that were recorded and staged by actigraphy and S+. An update to the S+ algorithm (common in the rapidly evolving commercial sleep tracker industry) permitted comparison of the original (S+V1) and updated (S+V2) versions.

RESULTS:

Sleep detection accuracy by S+V1 (93.3%), S+V2 (93.8%), and actigraphy (96.0%) was high; wake detection accuracy by each (69.6%, 73.1%, and 47.9%, respectively) was low. Higher overall S+ specificity, compared to actigraphy, was driven by higher accuracy in detecting wake before sleep onset (WBSO), which differed between S+V2 (90.4%) and actigraphy (46.5%). Stage detection accuracy by the S+ did not exceed 67.6% (for stage N2 sleep, by S+V2) for any stage. Performance is compared to previously established variance in polysomnography scored by humans: a performance standard which commercial devices should ideally strive to reach.

CONCLUSIONS:

Similar limitations in detecting wake after sleep onset (WASO) were found for the S+ as have been previously reported for actigraphy and other commercial sleep tracking devices. S+ WBSO detection was higher than actigraphy, and S+V2 algorithm further improved WASO accuracy. Researchers and clinicians should remain aware of the potential for algorithm updates to impact validity.

COMMENTARY:

A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 935.

KEYWORDS:

actigraphy; consumer device; sleep; validation

PMID:
31383243
PMCID:
PMC6622509
[Available on 2020-07-15]
DOI:
10.5664/jcsm.7892

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