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Ecology. 2019 Dec;100(12):e02861. doi: 10.1002/ecy.2861. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments.

Author information

German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, Leipzig, 04103, Germany.
Department of Computer Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
Leuphana University, Universitätsallee 1, C40.525, Lüneburg, 21335, Germany.
The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7016, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.
Departamento de Zoologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.
Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, 30322, USA.
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontoria, M1C 1A4, Canada.
Departamento de Biología, Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipán s/n, Móstoles, Madrid, E-28933, Spain.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.
UMR BIPAR, ANSES, INRA, ENVA, Université Paris-Est, 14 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Maisons-Alfort Cedex, 94701, France.
Centre of Biological Diversity, University of St Andrews, Harold Mitchell Building, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9TH, United Kingdom.
AP Leventis Ornithological Research Institute, University of Jos, PMB 2084, Jos, Nigeria.
Thünen Institute of Biodiversity, Bundesallee 65, Braunschweig, 38116, Germany.
Desert Ecology Research Group, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009, Australia.
CSIRO Health & Biosecurity, Centre for Environment and Life Sciences, Floreat, Western Australia, 6014, Australia.
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, United Kingdom.
Department of Ecology/PPGE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-901, Brazil.
Faculty of Sciences, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes - cE3c, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, 1749-016, Portugal.
Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, National Institute for Amazonian Research and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Manaus, 69011-970, Brazil.
Faculty of Environment, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.
Department of Biology, Ecological Synthesis and Biodiversity Conservation Lab, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, R. Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil.
Department of Ecology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Gonçalves 95000, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil.
INRA, UR406 Abeilles et Environnement, Route de l'Aérodrome, Avignon, 84914, France.
Granollers Museum of Natural Sciences, Granollers, 08402, Spain.
Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Bruce, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
Sunrise Ecological Research Institute, Ocean Grove, Victoria, 3226, Australia.
Centre for Natural Sciences, Lagoa do Sino, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodeo Lauri Simões de Barros, km 12, Buri, SP 18245-970, Brazil.
Faculty of Arts, Science & Technology, University of Northampton, Waterside Campus, University Drive, Northampton, NN1 5PH, United Kingdom.
School of Environment & Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, M5 4WT, United Kingdom.
Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Edificio Fritz Muller - Sala 207B, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-970, Brazil.
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, 63 Rua do Matão travessa 14, n 321, São Paulo, SP 005508-900, Brazil.
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, UMR7205 Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité CNRS MNHN UPMC EPHE, Sorbonne Universités, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris, 75005, France.
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom.
Instituto de Ciências da Natureza, Laboratório de Ecologia de Fragmentos Florestais (ECOFRAG), Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, no 700, Alfenas, MG CEP 37130-001, Brazil.
Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Global Change and Conservation, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 00014, Finland.
Faculty of Science, Biology Centre CAS, Institute of Entomology, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, Ceske Budejovice, CZ 370 05, Czech Republic.
Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore City, Singapore.
Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, Ohio, CT2 7NZ, USA.
School of Anthropology and Conservation, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, CT2 7NR, United Kingdom.
Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Avenida Pará 1720, Uberlândia, MG 38405-320, Brazil.
Department of Life Sciences, Spatial Ecology Laboratory, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israel.


Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non-standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale-dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation on species' assemblages, it is necessary to have the underlying data on species abundances and sampling intensity, so that standardization can be achieved. To accomplish this, we systematically searched the literature for studies where abundances of species in assemblages (of any taxa) were sampled from many habitat patches that varied in size. From these, we extracted data from several studies, and contacted authors of studies where appropriate data were collected but not published, giving us 117 studies that compared species assemblages among habitat fragments that varied in area. Less than one-half (41) of studies came from tropical forests of Central and South America, but there were many studies from temperate forests and grasslands from all continents except Antarctica. Fifty-four of the studies were on invertebrates (mostly insects), but there were several studies on plants (15), birds (16), mammals (19), and reptiles and amphibians (13). We also collected qualitative information on the length of time since fragmentation. With data on total and relative abundances (and identities) of species, sampling effort, and affiliated meta-data about the study sites, these data can be used to more definitively test hypotheses about the role of habitat fragmentation in altering patterns of biodiversity. There are no copyright restrictions. Please cite this data paper and the associated Dryad data set if the data are used in publications.


disturbance; habitat fragmentation; habitat loss; species abundance distribution; species richness; species-area relationship


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