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Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Aug;94(8):1542-1550. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.041.

Etiologies of Extreme Thrombocytosis: A Contemporary Series.

Author information

1
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA.
2
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
3
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
5
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.
6
Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: go.ronald@mayo.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe the multifactorial etiologies of extreme thrombocytosis (EXT) in different care settings and the frequency of finding an occult malignancy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We conducted a retrospective chart review at Mayo Clinic from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2016. Adult patients who had at least 2 readings of platelet counts greater than 1000×109/L within 30 days of each other were included. We determined the causes of EXT on the basis of preset definitions of precipitating factors and identified the dominant causes on the basis of the trend of platelet counts.

RESULTS:

A total of 44,490 patients had thrombocytosis, and 305 patients (0.7%) had EXT. In 242 patients (79.3%), EXT was multifactorial. Surgical complications (54.1%) and hematologic malignancies (27.9%) were the 2 most dominant causes. Thirty-eight patients (12.5%) had new diagnoses of malignancies, mostly myeloproliferative neoplasms. In inpatients, surgical complications (71.9%), concurrent/previous splenectomy (50.5%), and infections (44.9%) were the most common causes, whereas hematologic malignancies (56.9%), iron deficiency (36.7%), and previous splenectomy (28.4%) were the most common causes in outpatients. Hematologic malignancy was 3.4 times more likely to be the cause of EXT in outpatients than in inpatients (56.9% vs 16.8%), and a new diagnosis of hematologic malignancy was 1.9 times more likely to be made in outpatients (15.6% vs 8.2%). Eighty-four percent of patients had resolution of EXT within 30 days. One patient died during the period of EXT. Nonsurgical patients with hematologic malignancies had the most prolonged period of EXT.

CONCLUSION:

Extreme thrombocytosis is a multifactorial hematologic condition, and its etiology differs substantially between inpatients and outpatients. Occult hematologic malignancies are uncommon in EXT when other major causes are present.

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