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Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019 Aug 3. pii: gfz151. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfz151. [Epub ahead of print]

Plasma galactose-deficient immunoglobulin A1 and loss of kidney function in patients with immunoglobulin A vasculitis nephritis.

Zhang X1,2,3,4, Xie X1,2,3,4, Shi S1,2,3,4, Liu L1,2,3,4, Lv J1,2,3,4, Zhang H1,2,3,4.

Author information

1
Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.
2
Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China.
3
Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China Beijing, China.
4
Key Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment, Peking University, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis nephritis (IgAV-N) is the most common secondary IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Many studies have demonstrated that galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in the IgA1 hinge region is associated with the development and also progression of primary IgAN. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the roles of Gd-IgA1 in kidney disease progression in a large Chinese cohort of IgAV-N patients.

METHODS:

This cohort study enrolled 112 patients with IgAV-N, 15 patients with IgA vasculitis (IgAV) without kidney involvement and 108 patients with IgAN. Plasma IgA1 and Gd-IgA1 levels at kidney biopsy were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The primary endpoint was a 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate or end-stage renal disease or death.

RESULTS:

The levels of Gd-IgA1 in IgAV-N and IgAN patients were higher than in healthy controls (mean ± SD, 302.86 ± 54.93 U/mL versus 303.16 ± 59.43 U/mL versus 281.30 ± 43.74 U/mL, respectively; P = 0.047), as well as compared with those with IgAV without kidney involvement (272.65 ± 53.14 U/mL; P = 0.036). After adjusting clinical data, higher levels of Gd-IgA1 were found to be independently associated with a greater risk for kidney failure [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.703 per 1 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.233-2.352; P = 0.001]. Compared with the first Gd-IgA1 quartile group (as reference), the fourth Gd-IgA1 quartile group retained a predictive value for poor renal outcome (HR = 3.740, 95% CI 1.204-11.619; P = 0.023).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data indicate that Gd-IgA1 levels were similarly elevated in adult patients with IgAN and those with IgAV-N. Moreover, increased Gd-IgA1 levels were associated with both the development and progression of IgAV-N, as observed in IgAN.

KEYWORDS:

IgA nephropathy; IgA vasculitis nephritis; galactose-deficient IgA1; kidney disease progression

PMID:
31377786
DOI:
10.1093/ndt/gfz151

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