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J Thorac Oncol. 2019 Aug 1. pii: S1556-0864(19)30599-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jtho.2019.07.016. [Epub ahead of print]

EGFR-Mutated Lung Cancers Resistant to Osimertinib through EGFR C797S Respond to First-Generation Reversible EGFR Inhibitors but Eventually Acquire EGFR T790M/C797S in Preclinical Models and Clinical Samples.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
2
Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
4
Belfer Center for Applied Cancer Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: dbcosta@bidmc.harvard.edu.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Osimertinib is approved for advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC, and identification of on-target mechanisms of resistance (i.e., EGFR C797S) to this third-generation EGFR inhibitor are evolving. Whether durable control of subsequently osimertinib-resistant NSCLC with the EGFR-sensitizing mutation (SM)/C797S is possible with first-generation EGFR inhibitors (such as gefitinib or erlotinib) remains underreported, as does the resultant acquired resistance profile.

METHODS:

We used N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis to determine the profile of EGFR SM/C797S preclinical models exposed to reversible EGFR inhibitors. In addition, we retrospectively probed a case of EGFR SM lung adenocarcinoma treated with first-line osimertinib, followed by second-line erlotinib in the setting of EGFR SM/C797S.

RESULTS:

Use of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis against the background of EGFR L858R/C797S in conjunction with administration of gefitinib revealed preferential outgrowth of cells with EGFR L858R/T790M/C797S. A patient with EGFR delE746_T751insV NSCLC was treated with osimertinib with sustained response for 10 months before acquiring EGFR C797S. The patient was subsequently treated with erlotinib, with response for a period of 4 months, but disease progression ensued. Liquid biopsy disclosed EGFR delE746_T751insV with T790M and C797S present in cis.

CONCLUSION:

EGFR SM NSCLC can acquire resistance to osimertinib through development of the EGFR C797S mutation. In this clinical scenario, the tumor may respond transiently to reversible first-generation EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib or erlotinib), but evolving mechanisms of on-target resistance-in clinical specimens and preclinical systems-indicate that EGFR C797S along with EGFR T790M can evolve. This report adds to the growing understanding of tumor evolution or adaptability to sequential EGFR inhibition and augments support for exploring combination therapies to delay or prevent on-target resistance.

KEYWORDS:

C797S; EGFR; Erlotinib; Lung cancer; Osimertinib; T790M

PMID:
31377341
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtho.2019.07.016

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