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J Adolesc Health. 2019 Jul 31. pii: S1054-139X(19)30304-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.05.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of Pubertal Development With Adiposity and Cardiometabolic Health in Girls and Boys-Findings From the Generation XXI Birth Cohort.

Author information

1
EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: mjoao.fonseca@ispup.up.pt.
2
EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
3
EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Ginecologia-Obstetrícia e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
4
EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Luz Saúde, Porto, Portugal.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Early timing of pubertal development is associated with worse cardiometabolic health in adulthood. We aimed to evaluate this association in 10-year-old girls and boys and clarify if it is independent of previous body mass index (BMI).

METHODS:

Pubertal development was evaluated through the Tanner scale in 4,548 children from the birth cohort Generation XXI. Data on anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were collected. Bonferroni correction was applied, using an alpha of .004 for statistical significance. Regression coefficients and 99.6% confidence intervals were computed using linear regression models.

RESULTS:

Girls with a Tanner stage ≥2 presented statistically significant higher values of BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio, fat mass index, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lower values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Boys with a Tanner stage ≥2 presented statistically significant higher values of BMI, WC, systolic blood pressure, and HOMA-IR and lower values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After adjustment, including previous BMI, a Tanner stage ≥2 remained associated with BMI z-score (girls β = .41 [.32, .50]; boys β = .10 [.01, .19]) and WC (girls β = 2.64 cm [1.86, 3.43]; boys β = .81 cm [.11, 1.51]), and only in girls with waist-to-height ratio (β = .01 [.00, .01]), fat mass index (β = .31 kg/m2 [.08; .54]), glucose (β = 1.59 mg/dL [.85, 2.33]), insulin (β = 1.73 μU/mL [.68, 2.78]), and HOMA-IR (β = .40 [.16, .64]).

CONCLUSIONS:

Independently of previous BMI, preteens with early puberty already had more adiposity at age 10 years. In addition, girls had higher glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR, which may predict a worse glucose metabolism. These preteens should be a target for public health interventions.

KEYWORDS:

Adiposity; Birth cohort; Menarche; Metabolic disorders; Puberty

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