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Mar Drugs. 2019 Aug 1;17(8). pii: E451. doi: 10.3390/md17080451.

Fucoxanthin and Rosmarinic Acid Combination Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects through Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Keratinocytes.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Seville, Spain.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Seville, Spain.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.


Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main risk factor to develop skin pathologies or cancer because it encourages oxidative condition and skin inflammation. In this sense, strategies for its prevention are currently being evaluated. Natural products such as carotenoids or polyphenols, which are abundant in the marine environment, have been used in the prevention of oxidative stress due to their demonstrated antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, the anti-inflammatory activity and its implication in photo-prevention have not been extensively studied. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the combination of fucoxanthin (FX) and rosmarinic acid (RA) on cell viability, apoptosis induction, inflammasome regulation, and anti-oxidative response activation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that the combination of FX and RA (5 µM RA plus 5 μM FX, designated as M2) improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles in comparison to compounds assayed individually, by reducing UVB-induced apoptosis and the consequent ROS production. Furthermore, the M2 combination modulated the inflammatory response through down-regulation of inflammasome components such as NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1, and the interleukin (IL)-1β production. In addition, Nrf2 and HO-1 antioxidant genes expression increased in UVB-exposed HaCaT cells pre-treated with M2. These results suggest that this combination of natural products exerts photo-protective effects by down-regulating NRLP3-inflammasome and increasing Nrf2 signalling pathway.


NRLP3; UVB; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidative; fucoxanthin; inflammasome; photo-protection; rosmarinic acid

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