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Appetite. 2019 Nov 1;142:104390. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2019.104390. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Factor structure of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 among a low-income and racial minority population.

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Division of Primary Care Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, 43205, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, 370 W. 9th Ave., Columbus, OH, 43210, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Edwards One 4150P, P.O. Box 210376, Cincinnati, OH, 45221, USA.
Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue MLC 7035, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 3230 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, 45267, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 3230 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, 45267, USA; Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave MLC 5041, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.


Intuitive eating, where an individual relies on one's own physiologic hunger and satiety cues instead of situational and emotional cues, is associated with healthier lifestyle choices, lower body-mass index (BMI), and positive psychological well-being. Despite the importance of this construct, no assessment measure of intuitive eating has been validated for use in a low-income Black population, who have an elevated risk for poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a predominately low-income Black population. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) followed by an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted using data from 204 adult participants. A large majority (71%) identified as Black and 89% had public insurance. The relationship between scores on the IES-2, BMI, and body-image dissatisfaction scores were also evaluated. A CFA of the previously used IES-2 structure demonstrated less than optimal fit. An EFA supported a six-factor, twenty-three item measure with the following names set for subscales: Avoiding Forbidden Foods (3 items), Permission to Eat (3 items), Avoiding Emotional Eating (4 items), Avoiding Food-Related Coping Strategies (4 items), Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues (6 items), and Body-Food Choice Congruence (3 items). The modified IES-2 scores were negatively associated with BMI and body-image dissatisfaction scores. A modified factor structure of the IES-2 may be a better measure of intuitive eating in low-income Black populations.


Factor structure; Intuitive eating; Low-income; Minority racial group; Psychometric properties

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