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Am J Hum Genet. 2019 Aug 1;105(2):237-257. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.06.005.

DNA Damage and Associated DNA Repair Defects in Disease and Premature Aging.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address: vinod.tiwari@nih.gov.
2
Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. Electronic address: dmwilson3@outlook.com.

Abstract

Genetic information is constantly being attacked by intrinsic and extrinsic damaging agents, such as reactive oxygen species, atmospheric radiation, environmental chemicals, and chemotherapeutics. If DNA modifications persist, they can adversely affect the polymerization of DNA or RNA, leading to replication fork collapse or transcription arrest, or can serve as mutagenic templates during nucleic acid synthesis reactions. To combat the deleterious consequences of DNA damage, organisms have developed complex repair networks that remove chemical modifications or aberrant base arrangements and restore the genome to its original state. Not surprisingly, inherited or sporadic defects in DNA repair mechanisms can give rise to cellular outcomes that underlie disease and aging, such as transformation, apoptosis, and senescence. In the review here, we discuss several genetic disorders linked to DNA repair defects, attempting to draw correlations between the nature of the accumulating DNA damage and the pathological endpoints, namely cancer, neurological disease, and premature aging.

PMID:
31374202
PMCID:
PMC6693886
[Available on 2020-02-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.06.005

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