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Diagnosis (Berl). 2019 May 9. pii: /j/dx.ahead-of-print/dx-2019-0008/dx-2019-0008.xml. doi: 10.1515/dx-2019-0008. [Epub ahead of print]

Follow-up of incidental pulmonary nodules and association with mortality in a safety-net cohort.

Author information

1
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0320, USA.
2
Center for Vulnerable Populations, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0320, USA.
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0320, USA.
4
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0320, USA.
5
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0320, USA.

Abstract

Background Though incidental pulmonary nodules are common, rates of guideline-recommended surveillance and associations between surveillance and mortality are unclear. In this study, we describe adherence (categorized as complete, partial, late and none) to guideline-recommended surveillance among patients with incidental 5-8 mm pulmonary nodules and assess associations between adherence and mortality. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of 551 patients (ā‰„35 years) with incidental pulmonary nodules conducted from September 1, 2008 to December 31, 2016, in an integrated safety-net health network. Results Of the 551 patients, 156 (28%) had complete, 87 (16%) had partial, 93 (17%) had late and 215 (39%) had no documented surveillance. Patients were followed for a median of 5.2 years [interquartile range (IQR), 3.6-6.7 years] and 82 (15%) died during follow-up. Adjusted all-cause mortality rates ranged from 2.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-3.25] deaths per 100 person-years for complete follow-up to 3.30 (95% CI, 2.36-4.23) for no follow-up. In multivariable models, there were no statistically significant associations between the levels of surveillance and mortality (pā€‰>ā€‰0.16 for each comparison with complete surveillance). Compared with complete surveillance, adjusted mortality rates were non-significantly increased by 0.45 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI, -1.10 to 2.01) for partial, 0.55 (95% CI, -1.08 to 2.17) for late and 1.05 (95% CI, -0.35 to 2.45) for no surveillance. Conclusions Although guideline-recommended surveillance of small incidental pulmonary nodules was incomplete or absent in most patients, gaps in surveillance were not associated with statistically significant increases in mortality in a safety-net population.

KEYWORDS:

adherence; ambulatory care; care management; diagnosis; guidelines; underserved populations

PMID:
31373897
DOI:
10.1515/dx-2019-0008

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