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Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Aug 2. doi: 10.1002/bem.22210. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of Levels of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Emitted From Portable Hand-Held Fans.

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Department of Occupational Health, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.
Department of Environmental Health, Korea National Open University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Wonjin Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Department of Statistics, Dongguk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Department of Work Environment, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, Ulsan, Republic of Korea.
Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


This study aims to assess the levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) emitted from portable hand-held fans (HHFs) and their principal frequency and to identify factors influencing these levels. We collected a total of eleven models of HHF and monitored the ELF-MF as a function of fan speed and distance from the fan. EMDEX II was used to monitor the ELF-MF. An SMP2 EMF-meter equipped with a P400 field probe was used to determine the levels of ELF-MF and the frequency spectrum. Ten of the fans, excluding only one bladeless-fan model, emitted a high level of ELF-MF near the source of the HHF direct-current motor. The maximum measured level of ELF-MF ranged from 14.07 to 218.7 µT. All measurements of the ELF-MF taken within 10 cm from the HHFs showed values higher than 1.0 µT. ELF-MF levels were found to decrease markedly with distance, regardless of the HHF product. The level of ELF-MF rose noticeably with increased fan speed. The speed of and distance from the HHF significantly influenced the level of ELF-MF. All principal frequencies ranged from 1 to 300 Hz, which falls in the typical range of ELF. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.


direct-current motor; extremely low frequency; frequency spectrum; hand-held fan; magnetic field


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