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Res Nurs Health. 2019 Oct;42(5):369-381. doi: 10.1002/nur.21971. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Type 2 diabetes familial risk personalization process profiles: Implications for patient-provider communication.

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College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.


People who have a single first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk for developing T2D over their lifetime. A positive family history of T2D is also associated with developing risk awareness and engaging in risk-reducing behaviors among the unaffected relatives. Yet, little is known about how people with a positive family history for disease personalize and process their familial risk to form perceptions about their own risk. In this mixed method study, we explored risk personalization among a diverse group of people between the ages of 18 and 60, with a positive family history of T2D, who were themselves unaffected (n = 109). We collected interview and survey data with respect to the familial risk perception personalization model. Using cluster analysis, qualitative and quantitative data were combined to inductively derive three distinct clusters representing three different familial risk perception personalization processes. These results can serve as a basis for tailored interventions aimed at reducing risk for T2D among people with increased risk due to familial history.


cluster analysis; mixed methods; risk personalization process; type 2 diabetes

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