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Ayu. 2018 Oct-Dec;39(4):243-249. doi: 10.4103/ayu.AYU_53_18.

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Varanadi Kashayam (decoction) in THP-1-derived macrophages.

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Department of School of Biosciences, Inflammation Research Lab, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.



Varanadi Kashayam is an Ayurvedic polyherbal decoction containing 16 ingredients, for which the mechanisms of action involved in controlling chronic inflammatory conditions have not been evaluated. The inhibition of release of proinflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes/macrophages is an ideal in vitro model for identifying anti-inflammatory molecules.


The aim of the study is to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of Varanadi Kashayam in THP-1-derived macrophages.

Materials and Methods:

The efficacy of Varanadi Kashayam on monocyte cell differentiation was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of differentiation markers MMP-9, CD36, CD11b and CD14. Further Varanadi Kashayam treated THP-1 macrophages were induced with LPS and the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were measured and corresponding genes expressions were quantified.


The results indicate that Varanadi Kashayam reduced the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to macrophages and downregulated the expression of cell surface markers. Furthermore, it could decrease the release of proinflammatory cytokines from LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages and downregulated the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β genes.


The results obtained from this study suggest a possible mechanism of action of the herbal decoction in inflammatory processes and opens up the possibilities of identifying bioactive lead molecules with anti-inflammatory potentials.


Ayurveda; THP-1; Varanadi Kashayam; inflammation; interleukin-1 b; tumor necrosis factor-a

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