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J Conserv Dent. 2019 May-Jun;22(3):249-254. doi: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_552_18.

Biocompatibility evaluation of Jordanian Portland cement for potential future dental application.

Author information

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Arts, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.



The demand for novel Portland cement (PC)-based formulations to be used in dental applications is ever increasing in viewing the foregoing knowledge on the favorable effects of these formulations on cellular proliferation and healing, leading to treatment success.


This study investigated the effect of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (W-MTA and G-MTA) and white and gray Jordanian PC (W-PC and G-PC) in their raw state on the viability of Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.

Materials and Methods:

Materials were prepared in the form of disks, with a diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. In the first experiment, Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured with the material disks using culture plate inserts. In the second experiment, material elutes were added to cultured cells. The elutes were prepared by adding 2 ml serum-free media to 10 disks of each material and then incubated at 37°C for different time intervals. Material elutes were analyzed using ion chromatography for traces of calcium. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett test (α = 0.05) or Tukey test (α = 0.05).


In response to material disks, G-PC had a proliferative effect on cells at day 1 and day 2 with a significant difference from the control at day 1. G-MTA reduced cell viability with a significant difference from the control level at day 2. Elutes of PC showed biocompatible and even proliferative effects on Balb/C 3T3 fibroblasts. Calcium ions were found to leach continuously over the measurement period for all the materials tested in this work.


Jordanian PC in its raw state was found to be biocompatible, and the results of this work give promise of its wider use as a base for further development to improve the physiochemical and mechanical properties of the material.


Biocompatibility; calcium; cement; elution; fibroblasts; ions

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