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J Vet Med Sci. 2019 Oct 10;81(9):1385-1388. doi: 10.1292/jvms.18-0500. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Transrectal ultrasonography and blood lactate measurement: a combined diagnostic approach for severe uterine torsion in dairy cattle.

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Kawata Veterinary Clinic, 724-1 Arai, Fukaya-shi, Saitama 366-0016, Japan.
Hokkaido Higashi Agricultural Mutual Aid Association, 109-28 Nishishunbetsu, Betsukai-cho, Notsuke-gun, Hokkaido 088-2576, Japan.
Laboratory of Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonan-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan.
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Okayama University of Science, 1-3 Ikoinooka, Imabari-shi, Ehime 794-8555, Japan.


In this study, we aimed to elucidate the utility of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) and blood lactate concentration (bLac) measurement to diagnose cows with severe uterine torsion. We investigated the association of TRUS and bLac measurement with macroscopic findings on laparotomy for severe uterine torsion in nine cows. We found that an increased ultrasonographic cross-sectional thickness (15-25 mm) and multiple hypoechogenic areas corresponded to macroscopic vascular compromise in the uterus on laparotomy. In addition, bLac was elevated (≥5.0 mmol/l) in cows showing uterine necrosis on laparotomy. A combined diagnostic approach with TRUS and bLac measurement enables assessment of the uterine vascular status and has utility for selecting the treatment option (including laparotomy) and predicting the outcomes.


dairy cattle; diagnosis; lactate; ultrasonography; uterine torsion

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